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The Civil rights act of 1866 quizlet

Civil Rights Act of 1866 Flashcards Quizle

1866 Why allowed African Americans to own property and stated they were to be treated equally in court, federal government had the right to sue people who violated these rights, led to 14th amendment added to constitutio Learn civil rights act of 1866 with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of civil rights act of 1866 flashcards on Quizlet It enfranchised all male citizens and gave them the right to vote. It prevented states from denying citizens equal protection under the law. It allowed states to seize citizens' property without due process of the law. It prevented states from denying citizens equal protection under the law Start studying Civil Rights Bouche. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, Civil Rights Act of 1866. law that established federal guarantees of civil rights for all citizens. Quizlet Live. Quizlet Learn. Explanations. Diagrams. Flashcards. Mobile. Help. Sign up. Help Center

What was the purpose of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 quizlet? The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat. 27-30, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define US citizenship and affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law Civil Rights Act of 1866. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 (14 Stat. 27-30, enacted April 9, 1866, reenacted 1870) was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law. It was mainly intended, in the wake of the American Civil War, to protect the civil rights of persons of African.

civil rights act of 1866 Flashcards and Study Sets Quizle

  1. What was the main purpose of the 1866 Civil Rights Act quizlet? The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat. 27-30, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define US citizenship and affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law
  2. Chapter 21 Quiz 1. The Civil Rights Act of 1866: - The Civil Rights Act of 1866: 2. During Reconstruction, southern state governments helped to finance: - Railroads 3. The Fifteenth Amendment: - sought to guarantee that one could not be denied suffrage rights based on race 4
  3. What rights did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 grant all citizens quizlet? The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
  4. One such law was the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which declared that all people born in the United States were U.S. citizens and had certain inalienable rights, including the right to make contracts, to own property, to sue in court, and to enjoy the full protection of federal law. When was the Freedmen's Bureau established
  5. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the first federal law to affirm that all U.S. citizens are equally protected under the law. The Act also defined citizenship and made it illegal to deny any person the rights of citizenship on the basis of their race or color. The Act failed to protect political or social rights like voting and equal accommodations
  6. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 (14 Stat. 27-30, enacted April 9, 1866, reenacted 1870) was the first United States federal law to define citizenship and affirm that all citizens are equally protected by the law. The Act was passed by Congress in 1865 and vetoed by United States President Andrew Johnson
  7. One of the important events during his presidency was the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Text during the Reconstruction Era following the Civil War. An Act to protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and furnish the Means of their Vindication

Civil Rights Act Of 1866: study guides and answers on Quizle

  1. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all persons born in the United States to be citizens, without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the legislation, that veto was overturned by the 39th United States Congress and the
  2. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, http://www.gilderlehrman.org/, presents historian Eric Foner on the significance of 1866 in the birth of ci..
  3. The Civil Rights Act (1866) was passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition
  4. imum of federal intervention in their affairs

Thirteenth Amendment. P.L. 38-11; 13 Stat. 567; P.L. 38-52. 13 Stat. 774-775. Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. Approved by the 38th Congress (1863-1865) as S.J. Res. 16; ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. Civil Rights Act of 1866 Civil Rights Act of 1866 guaranteed equal rights under law for all people who lived within the jurisdiction of the United States 1868 Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States and prohibited states from denying any person the equal protection of the laws or depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without. The Civil Rights Act of 1866, 14 Stat. 27-30, enacted April 9, 1866, was the first United States federal law to define US citizenship and affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law. It was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War

The Act failed to protect political or social rights like voting and equal accommodations. Today, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 is cited in Supreme Court cases dealing with discrimination. What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 do quizlet? Civil Rights Act, 1968: This barred discrimination in housing sales or rentals The Civil Rights Act of 1866 has been around over 150 years. Justice (Image by CQF-avocat from Pixabay) Passed by Congress on April 9, 1866, the act was founded after slavery ended to ensure. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all male persons born in the United States to be citizens, without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the legislation, that veto was overturned by the 39th United States Congress and How did the South reverse much of the Civil Rights Act of 1866? (5 points) Group of answer choices By electing African Americans By electing a Southern president By passing Black Codes By passing blue laws A- By electing African Americans. READ: Why do the plebeians attack Cinna the poet Civil Rights Act of 1866—allowed formerly enslaved people full access to the courts Through which of the following practices did white southerners avoid giving former slaves the right to vote? Collecting poll taxe

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The Civil Right Act of 1866 has a great significance in the history. It is due to the fact that it was the first law being passed by the Federal to protect the Rights of all Civilians living in America.. Actually after the American civil war, many people from Africa were brought in the state, and Government wanted to give them equal rights In February 1866, Congress passed, over Johnson's veto, a bill extending the life and increasing the powers of the Freedman's Bureau. This bill allowed the national government to continue its direct assistance to freed slaves. Republicans then saw that it was necessary to ensure that states would protect the basic civil rights of all their. What were some effects of the 1860 election quizlet? Terms in this set (3) Constitutional Union Party won Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Republican Party won 17 states which included the North and two free states. Republican Party won the election with 59% of the electrol votes. Seven of the southern states seceded from the Union The Civil Rights Act of 1866 a. was vetoed by Congress. b. closed the South to scalawags. c. was instrumental in the establishment of the Fourteenth Amendment. d. established the black codes to ensure freedom for African Americans The Civil Rights Act of 1866. 2019. David W Armstrong. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. READ PAPER. The Civil Rights Act of 1866. Download. The Civil Rights Act of 1866

13), commonly known as the Ku Klux Klan Act or the Civil Rights Act of 1871, was a, Civil Rights Act of 1991 105 Stat. Julie Davies The bill was passed by the 43rd United States Congress and signed into law by United States President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1875. Early in 1866 Congress approved an act which stated that states could not infringe on the rights of their citizens. The. The Civil Rights Act of 1875, sometimes called the Enforcement Act or the Force Act, was a United States federal law enacted during the Reconstruction era in response to civil rights violations against African Americans.The bill was passed by the 43rd United States Congress and signed into law by United States President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1875 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 Text The original, full Civil Rights Act of 1866 Text is detailed below. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed on April 9, 1866 and signed by Schuyler Colfax, Speaker of the House of Representatives and Lafayette S. Foster, President of the Senate, pro tempore. For additional information refer to our article on the Civil Rights Act of 1866 Civil Rights Act may refer to several acts of the United States Congress, including: Civil Rights Act of 1866 extending the rights of emancipated slaves House. It was the first veto of a civil rights act since Andrew Johnson vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 The passage of this bill thus overturned the programs While the Civil Rights Act of 1866 prohibited discrimination in housing, there.

What did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 do? One such law was the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which declared that all people born in the United States were U.S. citizens and had certain inalienable rights, including the right to make contracts, to own property, to sue in court, and to enjoy the full protection of federal law.. What was the Civil Rights Act of 1963 The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was a United States federal law enacted during the post-Civil War Reconstruction Era that guaranteed African Americans equal access to public accommodations and public transportation. The Act came less than a decade after the Civil Rights Act of 1866 had taken the nation's first steps towards civil and social equality for Black Americans after the Civil War The ensuing period known as Radical Reconstruction resulted in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which for the first time in American history gave Black people a voice in government. By the mid-1870s, however, extremist forces—such as the Ku Klux Klan —succeeded in restoring many aspects of white supremacy in the South Home entertainment: A short background of the Civil liberty Act of 1866 as well as exactly how it is still made use of When enslavement formally finished in the USA in 1865, Head Of State Abraham Lincoln's Republican federal government went full steam to transform regulation that proceeded legalized bigotry. The initial steps taken promptl The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a revolutionary piece of legislation in the United States that effectively outlawed egregious forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including all forms of segregation. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 terminated unequal application in regards to voter registration requirements and all forms of racial segregation in schools, in the workplace.

What was the purpose of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 quizlet? - AnswersToAl

The Civil Rights Act of 1866 declared all persons born in the United States to be citizens, without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the legislation, that veto was overturned by the 39th United States Congress and the bill became law. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the nation's first civil. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was significant because it provided rights that had previously only been available to whites to all citizens of the United States, although it quickly became corrupted by Jim Crow laws. Send. You might be interested in. The Louisiana purchase effect on size of nation. alina1380 [7 The Civil Rights Act of 1991 is a United States labor law, passed in response to United States Supreme Court decisions that limited the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination. The Act represented the first effort since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to modify some of the basic procedural and substantive rights provided by federal law in employment.

Civil Rights Act of 1866: 14 Stat. 27-30: Guaranteed the rights of all citizens to make and enforce contracts and to purchase, sell, or lease property. Passed by the 39th Congress (1865-1867) as S.R. 61. Fourteenth Amendment: 14 Stat. 358-359 The fight against racial injustice did not end after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, but the law did allow activists to meet their major goals. The legislation came to be after President Lyndon B. Johnson asked Congress to pass a comprehensive civil rights bill. President John F. Kennedy had proposed such a bill in June of 1963, mere months before his death, and Johnson used.

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Why is the Civil Rights Act of 1866 important? - AnswersToAl

  1. ated Congress on April 9, 1866. Congress overrode his veto and then drew up the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment to the Constitution forbade the states to abridge (reduce) the rights of the citizens, white or black
  2. Civil Rights Act of 1866. Christopher A. Bracey. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 (14 Stat. 27) was a momentous chapter in the development of civic equality for newly emancipated blacks in the years following the Civil War.The act accomplished three primary objectives designed to integrate blacks into mainstream American society. First, the act proclaimed that all persons born in the United.
  3. Passed on July 2nd, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a pivotal piece of legislation in the civil rights movement. It changed the accessability of education, jobs and services for African Americans and women. Today, to celebrate the passage of this historic bill, which many of our forefathers (and mothers) fought hard for, we present this quiz

Civil Rights Act of 1866 - Wikipedi

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is affected by all three branches of the federal government. It was passed by both houses of Congress and sent to President Johnson who signed the bill into law The Civil Rights Act declared that all people born in the United States were citizens who had the inviolable right to life, personal freedom, property, and legal recourse Civil Rights Acts (1866 & 1875) Quesions 1. What amendment was passed to prevent the civil rights act of 1866 from being appealed? 2. What president vetoed the act of 1866? 3. What Bill did congress pass to improve the act of 1866 after the first veto? 4. Why did the suprem

What does Civil Rights Act of 1866 prohibit

Brown v Board of Education is a landmark case in the African American struggle against segregation in America. In 1954 most schools in the South were racially segregated. In Brown v Board of Education the Supreme Court reversed the 1896 case of Plessy v Ferguson which held that as long as equal facilities are provided for whites and colored people, segregation did not violate the Fourteenth. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 by Robert D. Loevy. Excerpted from David C. Kozak and Kenneth N. Ciboski, editors, The American Presidency (Chicago, IL: Nelson Hall, 1985), pp. 411-419. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was considered an historic breakthrough because it was the first major civil rights bill to get through Congress in the 20th Century Post Civil War Federal Civil Rights Acts - Civil . Just Now Civilrights.uslegal.com Get All . Civil. After the Civil War, Congress enacted several pieces of civil rights legislation including: the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and 1871, the Enforcement Act of 1870, the Force Act of 1871, the Ku Klux Klan Act, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875 In 1866, the Civil Rights Act was passed by Congress which outlined a number of civil liberties including the right to make contracts, own and sell property and receive equal treatment under the law. Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment in 1867. The amendment was designed to provide citizenship and civil liberties to the recently freed slaves

The 1991 Act combined elements from two different civil rights acts of the past: the Civil Rights Ac of 1866, better known by the number assigned to it in the codification of federal laws as Section 1981, and the employment-related provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, generally referred to as Title VII These efforts to force former slaves to work on plantations led Congressional Republicans to seize control of Reconstruction from President Andrew Johnson, deny representatives from the former Confederate states their Congressional seats, and pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and draft the 14th Amendment, extending citizenship rights to African Americans and guaranteeing equal protection of. Civil Rights Act of 1866. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 (1866 Act) is pretty simple and clear, at least as far as 19th century legalese goes. The 1866 Act basically confirmed that all people born. Civil Rights. Personal liberties that belong to an individual, owing to his or her status as a citizen or resident of a particular country or community. The most common legal application of the term civil rights involves the rights guaranteed to U.S. citizens and residents by legislation and by the Constitution. Civil rights protected by the Constitution include Freedom of Speech and freedom.

Final Exam Questions - Chapter 21 Quiz 1 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 The Civil Rights

Passed by Congress June 13, 1866, and ratified July 9, 1868, the 14th amendment extended liberties and rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves. Following the Civil War, Congress submitted to the states three amendments as part of its Reconstruction program to guarantee equal civil and legal rights to black citizens Civil Rights Cases, five legal cases that the U.S. Supreme Court consolidated (because of their similarity) into a single ruling on October 15, 1883, in which the court declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to be unconstitutional and thus spurred Jim Crow laws that codified the previously private, informal, and local practice of racial segregation in the United States Civil rights definition is - the nonpolitical rights of a citizen; especially : the rights of personal liberty guaranteed to U.S. citizens by the 13th and 14th amendments to the Constitution and by acts of Congress. How to use civil rights in a sentence

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Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. An Act. To enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on Civil Rights, to prevent discrimination.

1867 1866 Civil Rights Act of 1866 grants citizenship, but not the right to vote, to all native-born Americans 1869 Congress passes the Fifteenth Amendment giving African American men the right to vote 1896 Louisiana passes grandfather clauses to keep former slaves and their descendants from voting After the black codes had been enacted throughout the South in 1865, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to give African Americans more rights—to a degree. This legislation allowed. The Civil Rights Act of 1991. -Reiterated the principles of the Civil Rights Act Of 1964. -Made employment discrimination based on color, race, gender and religious creed illegal. -Incorporated features of 1866 employment law by granting damages to injured party. -Added potential employee's covered by the 1967 Age Discrimination Act Chapter 21 Civil Rights Review Worksheet—ANSWERS OGT DescriptionSection Page Person, Place, Date, Term refer to and study Civil Rights Movement— Alphabet Soup 4.1 Dred Scott 166 Dred Scott vs. Sanford (1857) was a slave who sued unsuccessfully for his freedom in the famous lawsuit Dred Scott v. Sandfor

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Civil Rights Act of 1991. Civil Rights Act of 1991 was the most complete civil rights legislation since the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The federal law was passed into law by Congress on Nov. 21, 1991, following two years of debate, and prohibited discrimination for job applicants and workers, based on race, gender, religion, color or ethnic characteristics The 1991 Civil Rights Act Has Hurt Its Intended Beneficiaries. The nondiscrimination law made employers in traditionally white-male industries less likely to hire minorities The Radical Republicans passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the First Reconstruction Act, the Second Reconstruction Act, the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, the Civil Rights Act of 1875, and the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. What two laws did the radical Republicans pass to reduce presidential power The Civil Rights Act of 1964. The civil rights movement deeply affected American society. Among its most important achievements were two major civil rights laws passed by Congress. Although these rights were first guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution immediately after the Civil War, they had never been fully enforced Ku Klux Klan Act. The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 (ch. 22, 17 Stat. 13 [codified as amended at 18 U.S.C.A. § 241, 42 U.S.C.A. §§ 1983, 1985(3), and 1988]), also called the Civil Rights Act of 1871 or the Force Act of 1871, was one of several important Civil Rights Acts passed by Congress during Reconstruction, the period following the Civil War when the victorious northern states attempted to.

What are the basic civil rights? - Mvorganizing

  1. BACKGROUND. After the civil war, black representatives were preoccupied with passing the Civil Rights Bill because the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and Ku Klux Klan Acts didn't seem effective enough. Opponents of the bill argued the bill was redundant and was beyond the scope of Congress' power. 1 Black congressional representatives were able to give anecdotal stories of racism in hotels.
  2. Strengthening Civil Rights. President Obama is leading the fight to protect everyone - no matter who you are, where you're from, what you look like, or who you love. We, the people, declare today that the most evident of truths — that all of us are created equal — is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through.
  3. Which of the following did the congressional Reconstruction program enacted in 1866 1867 not provide for? What won the support of congressional moderates for the Radical program? the president's uncompromising veto of a civil rights bill
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What did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 do? - Colors-NewYork

  1. With the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the federal government offered its immense power to the struggle to realize a more just and inclusive American society. But the act did not fulfill all of the goals of civil rights activists. It would take further grassroots mobilization, judicial precedent, and legislative action to guarantee civil rights for African Americans
  2. ation in hotels, trains, and other public spaces, was unconstitutional and not authorized by.
  3. Salmon Chase, as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court, eventually overruled the Maryland apprentice laws on the grounds of their violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. North Carolina. North Carolina's Black Code specified racial differences in punishment, establishing harsher sentences for Blacks convicted of rape
  4. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883 in an effort to ensure that employees of the federal government were given jobs based on merit rather than political affiliation. Its name referred to paper money, or greenbacks, that had been issued during the American Civil War and afterward
  5. The Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws. Black codes and Jim Crow laws were laws passed at different periods in the southern United States to enforce racial segregation and curtail the power of black voters. After the Civil War ended in 1865, some states passed black codes that severely limited the rights of black people, many of whom had been enslaved
  6. ation on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, sex or national origin.. Prior to the Act of 1964, African-Americans faced enormous challenges that were permissible by law including: discri
  7. ation in public accommodation is.

The Civil Rights Act of 1866: History and Impac

On this date, the House passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875 by a vote of 162 to 99. First introduced by one of Congress's greatest advocates for black civil rights, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, in 1870, the original bill outlawed racial discrimination in juries, schools, transportation, and public accommodations. Republican leaders were forced, however, to chip away at the. In 1957, President Eisenhower sent Congress a proposal for civil rights legislation. The result was the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. The new act established the Civil Rights Section of the Justice Department and empowered federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against interference with the right to vote Teachers tend to present the Civil Rights Movement as a distinctly American event, from Montgomery to Memphis, with the Voting Rights Act of 1965 as its crowning moment. The term civil rights limits our understanding, since it refers specifically to rights guaranteed by the Constitution or protected through legislation The Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave freedmen full legal equality, with the exception of the right to vote. It was vetoed by Johnson, but his veto was overridden by Congress. The Joint Committee on Reconstruction was a 15-member panel created to devise Reconstruction requirements for Southern states to be restored to the Union 1866 Pennsylvania Gubernatorial Race. Clymer is a Democrat and Geary is a He gave the longest filibuster in Senate history — speaking for 24 hours against the 1957 Civil Rights Act. 4

What were black codes, and what was their purpose? They were to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks it was to first ensure a stable and subservient labor force. They also sought to restore as much as possible the pre-emancipation system of race relations This act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964, prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. This document was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction Definition of civil rights act of 1968 in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of civil rights act of 1968. What does civil rights act of 1968 mean? Information and translations of civil rights act of 1968 in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web - In an action brought by a complaining party under section 706 or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e-5) against a respondent who engaged in unlawful intentional discrimination (not an employment practice that is unlawful because of its disparate impact) prohibited under section 703, 704, or 717 of the Act (42 U.S.C. 2000e-2 or 2000e-3), and provided that the complaining. The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (ERTA) was a major tax cut designed to encourage economic growth. Included in the act was an across-the-board decrease in federal income tax rates. The top marginal tax rate fell from 70 percent to 50 percent. Meanwhile, the lowest rate was lowered from 14 percent to 11 percent

Who made the Civil Rights Act of 1875? - Mvorganizing

What did the Reconstruction Act of 1867 do? The Reconstruction Act of 1867 outlined the terms for readmission to representation of rebel states. After meeting these criteria related to protecting the rights of African Americans and their property, the former Confederate states could gain full recognition and federal representation in Congress The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the most comprehensive civil rights legislation ever enacted by Congress. It contained extensive measures to dismantle Jim Crow segregation and combat racial discrimination. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 removed barriers to black enfranchisement in the South, banning poll taxes, literacy tests, and other.

Civil Rights Act of 1866 Text - American Historama: United States History for kid

In April 1866, Congress—still celebrating the Union's Civil War victory and persuaded by passionate rhetoric insisting rights legislation was needed to make that bloodshed meaningful—overrode a presidential veto for the first time in United States history to enact the Civil Rights Act. 51 Foner, Reconstruction, 250-51 How to Cite the 1964 Civil Rights Act in APA Format. The concept of equal protection under the laws in the United States theoretically dated back to the 14th Amendment at the end of the Civil War. However, the reality in the century after Robert E. Lee surrendered was quite different, as the concept of separate but.